General Sir Douglas Haig, British Commander in Chief, desired a diversionary attack in nearby French sectors to occupy German troops there and thus prevent reinforcements being sent to Belgium. He therefore instructed the Canadian Corps to attack and capture the strategic city of Lens. Lieutenant General Sir Arthur Currie, who had been appointed commander of the Canadian Corps in June 1917, studied the area and determined that an attack on an area of high ground to the north of the city of Lens—known as Hill 70—would be of more strategic value than the largely destroyed urban area below.
Currie therefore suggested to General Henry Horne—British First Army Commander and Currie’s immediate superior—that the Canadians capture and reinforce Hill 70, thus forcing the Germans to expend men and resources in efforts to recapture the high ground. Horne agreed and Haig consented to the change of plans.
While Haig’s Belgian offensive commenced on July 31, 1917, poor weather delayed the Hill 70 assault into the following month. At 4:25 a.m. August 15, while the 4th Canadian Division launched a direct diversionary attack on the city of Lens, 1st and Canadian Division units commenced the attack on Hill 70. Ten Canadian battalions advanced along a 4,000-yard front, crashing through the German front line in twenty minutes and seizing their first objective. By 6:00 p.m., the Corps had achieved all of its objectives and personnel set about establishing a new, consolidated line.
In subsequent days, German forces heavily shelled the Canadian line and launched 21 counter-attacks, but were unable to drive the Corps from the high ground. The Canadian success at Hill 70, however, came at considerable cost. Approximately 1,500 soldiers were killed, while another 3,800 were wounded. Three soldiers with connections to Guysborough County were among the Canadian Corps’ Hill 70 fatalities.
|Pte. Roy Quentin Grencon|
|Lance Corporal James Alexander Cameron|
The 26th Battalion (New Brunswick) was part of the 2nd Canadian Division’s 5th Brigade, where it served alongside the 22nd (Quebec’s “Van Doos”), 24th (Victoria Rifles of Canada, Montreal) and 25th (Nova Scotia) Battalions. Roy and James joined the 26th’s ranks following its costly service at the Somme, its personnel reduced to less than 300 “all ranks.” Throughout the autumn of 1916, the battalion rebuilt its ranks. Shortly after Roy and James’s arrival, the unit relocated northward, where it served in sectors near Lens, France throughout the winter of 1916-17.
On April 9, 1917, James and Roy were in the line as the 26th participated in the Canadian Corps’ historic attack on Vimy Ridge. The unit was part of the attack’s first phase, capturing its assigned sector of Zwischen Stellung—a German defensive support position—in less than an hour and suffering only “slight” casualties during the advance. The 26th served on rotation in sectors near Vimy Ridge until early June, when personnel retired to Estrée Cauchie for a period of training.
On July 1, as the 26th prepared to return to the line, James was promoted to the rank of Lance Corporal. The 26th served in sectors near Lens for three weeks, retiring before month’s end to Bois de Bouvingy for several weeks training. Personnel focused on preparing for the Canadian Corps’ second major engagement of the year—the attack on Hill 70, north of Lens.
On the night of August 14/15, the 26th returned to the line and completed final preparations for the following morning’s attack. While not part of the initial attacking wave, James, Roy and their comrades “pushed off” at 4:25 a.m. April 15, advancing behind the 22nd and 25th Battalions to a Second Assembly area “with very few casualties.”
As the soldiers went “over the top” toward their objective—a German defensive position known as “Norman Trench”—“a great deal of Machine Gun and Rifle Fire was met with and most of [the day’s] casualties took place just after leaving” the Second Assembly Area. The battalion nevertheless secured its objective and set about consolidating its position. During the day, the 26th repelled three German counter-attacks, its soldiers remaining in the line until relieved on the night of August 16/17.
Lance Corporal James Cameron and Private Roy Grencon were among the 26th’s casualties during the first day’s advance toward Norman Trench. Their remains were never recovered from the battlefield. Roy’s and James’ names are engraved on the Canadian War Memorial at Vimy Ridge, two of 11,285 Canadian soldiers killed on the battlefields of northern France and who have no known final resting place. Lance Corporal James Alexander Cameron was 20 years, six months of age at the time of his passing, while Private Roy Quentin Grencon was only three months past his eighteenth birthday.
|Private Harrington John "Hal" Barss.|
Following the outbreak of the First World War, Canadian officials authorized the formation of the 151st (Central Alberta) Battalion, which recruited its ranks from the Strathcona, Battle River and Red Deer areas. On January 11, 1916, 28-year-old Hal Barss enlisted with the 151st at Wainwright, AB. After several months’ training at Camp Sarcee, near Calgary, the battalion made its way across the country by train and departed for England aboard SS California on October 3.
The unit arrived at Liverpool, England 10 days later but was disbanded within weeks of its arrival. Hal was initially transferred to the 9th Reserve Battalion, St. Martin’s Plain, Shorncliffe, but was quickly re-assigned to the 16th Battalion and proceeded across the English Channel to France on November 13, 1916.
One of the first Canadian units organized for overseas service, the 16th Battalion (Canadian Scottish) initially consisted of volunteers from four Canadian Highland militia units. At the time of Hal’s arrival in early December 1916, the 16th was an experienced battalion, having served in Belgium’s Ypres Salient for 16 months and fought at the Somme during the autumn of 1916.
Hal served with the 16th in trenches near Lens, France throughout the winter and spring of 1916-17 and participated in the Canadian Corps’ historic April 7, 1917 attack on Vimy Ridge. Two weeks after the famous battle, Hal provided a detailed description of his Vimy experiences in a letter written to “Irene,” a female acquaintance (see below).
The unit served in sectors near Vimy Ridge throughout the spring and early summer months. Following a week-long break, Hal and his mates returned to trenches near Loos on August 13 as the Canadian Corps prepared for its assault of Hill 70, north of Lens, France. At 2:30 a.m. August 15, the unit’s personnel assumed their assigned positions and awaited the opening barrage. Two hours later, the battalion “leaped out of the trenches led by its pipers” and advanced behind the supporting barrage.
Personnel encountered “little or no resistance” as they captured their objective and set about consolidating their position. The remainder of the day passed quietly, as German artillery fire fell on trench positions well behind the 16th’s location. The following day, however, the guns readjusted their range and heavy shelled the unit’s line throughout the day, causing considerable casualties.
In the early morning hours of August 17, the 16th withdrew from the line and took toll of its Hill 70 losses. Two Officers and 35 “other ranks” (OR) were killed, 201 OR wounded and nine OR missing after two days in the line. Private Harrington John Barss was one of the nine “missing” OR, most likely a victim of the August 16, 1917 artillery fire. He never returned to his unit and his remains were never recovered from the battlefield.
Hal’s name is inscribed on the Canadian War Memorial, Vimy Ridge, erected in memory of the 11,285 Canadian soldiers killed on the battlefields of northern France and who have no known final resting place. A detailed version of Hal’s story, including his descriptive letter recalling his Vimy experiences, is available here.
Bantry Publishing's First World War Honour Roll of Guysborough County, Nova Scotia, Volume I: 1915 - 1917 contains a detailed summary of Roy's, James's and Hal's family background and military service, along with 69 other profiles of soldiers with connections to Guysborough County who died of causes related to their service during the first three years of the war.